Searching Reciprocity in Japan.
e will observe Japan from 1600 to 1868, focusing on various perspectives from the society of the Tokugawa years—also known as the Edo period. We will research Edo’s ecological and reciprocal lifestyle in downtown Tokyo first, and then research the spiritual interrelation between nature and the Ainu people (indigenous people) in Hokkaido. The Ainu have maintained a reciprocal lifestyle with nature and animals. A multi-perspective approach will be used to discuss and analyze the development of the Edo and Ainu societies. Masako Kubota. Instructor in Asian Studies.